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Help+Infinitive and Help+Object+Infinitive in BrE and AmE


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Title: Help+Infinitive and Help+Object+Infinitive in BrE and AmE
Authors: Sonoda, Kenji
Issue Date: 31-Mar-1994
Citation: 長崎大学医療技術短期大学部紀要 = Bulletin of the School of Allied Medical Sciences, Nagasaki University. 1994, 7, p.29-44
Abstract: The aims of this paper are, first, to see how frequently the forms with to and the forms without to in help+infinitive and help+object+infinitive are used in current BrE and AmE, and, second, to see how these forms have undergone changes in their occurrences from around 1700 to the present in British English (BrE) and American English (AmE), and, third, to think about the possible causes that brought about the changes. In order to examine the forms above, a total of 45 monthlies and weeklies and five anthologies published in Britain and the United States were looked into. In current BrE, help+bare inf. appears in about 55 percent of the instances and help+to-inf, in about 45 percent of the instances. In current AmE, help+bare inf. occurs in about 92 percent of the instances and help+to-inf. in about 8 percent of the instances. In BrE, help+to-inf. was used in most cases from around 1700 to around 1970, from when help+bare inf. began to be used a little more saliently. Around 1993 the bare inf. displaced to-inf. and began to be used more frequently. In AmE, help+to-inf. was used almost as often as help+bare inf. from around 1700 to around 1900. From around 1910 to around 1930, help+to-inf. was used more often than the bare inf. Around 1950 help+bare inf, took the place of help+to-inf., and began to be used more frequently. In current BrE, help+obj. +bare inf. accounts for approximately 67 percent, and help+obj. +to-inf. about 33 percent; in current AmE, help+obj. +bare inf. accounts for 94 percent, and help +obj.+to-inf. 6 percent. In BrE, help +obj. +to-inf. was predominantly used from around 1700 to around 1900, and it is not until around 1930 that the form without to began to be used a little more noticeably. Around 1970 the bare inf. took the place of the to-inf. and began to be used more often. In AmE, help +obj.+bare inf. was used almost as frequently as, or a little more frequently than, help+obj. +to-inf, from around 1700 to around 1970. Around 1970 help+obj. +bare inf. began to be used more noticeably than help+obj. +to-inf.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/18210
ISSN: 09160841
Type: Departmental Bulletin Paper
Text Version: publisher
Appears in Collections:Volume 7

Citable URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/18210

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