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Title: 変革期の中国の看護の現状と課題
Other Titles: The State Of Present and Task of Chinese Nursing on The Reform Term
Authors: 岸, 英子 / 孫, 莉 / 劉, 瑞霜
Authors (alternative): Kishi, Eiko / Son, Lie / Ryuu, Suisou
Issue Date: 2-Mar-1999
Citation: 長崎大学医療技術短期大学部紀要 = Bulletin of the School of Allied Medical Sciences, Nagasaki University. 1999, 12, p.127-133
Abstract: 中国は12億人以上の人口を有し,世界人口の約5分の1を占めている.「独生子」政策は人口構造及び疾病構造の変化をもたらし,「改革解放」政策によって社会・経済面の変革が行われ,人々の価値観が多様化し,医療や看護政策も変革期を迎えた. 1995年現在,中国の看護婦(護士・護師・助産士)は117.5万人であり,人口比から見ると日本の約10分の1である.先進国に比較すると極端に少ない.乳児死亡率,妊産婦死亡率,低体重児出生率,人工流産率が高く,母子保健水準の改善が必要であり,人口高齢化による生活習慣病対策のためにも看護需要は益々高まっている. 看護教育制度は,中学校卒業後3年間の教育が一般的であるため,高等学校及び大学卒業の看護婦(護師)が少なかった.しかし,最近では看護の高等教育,卒後継続教育を強化し,看護の質的向上に向けて教育内容の充実が図られている.その結果,護士より護師が暫増し,21世紀初めには中学卒業後の看護婦教育廃止が予定されている. 中国衛生部及び中国護理学会は,看護婦確保対策のために,看護婦の処遇改善,看護婦昇進制度の制定,看護婦登録管理法の制定等を施行し,看護婦を専門職として認め,魅力ある職場作りに励んで,看護婦需給対策に力を入れている. / China has population more than 1.2 billion and occupies five minute one of worldwide population. For "Only Child Policy" and "Reformation and Liberation Policy" have influence on the medical treatment and nursing policy. The Chinese nurses are 117.5 tens of thousands people as of 1995. Their are not sufficient than Japanese nurses and the nurses of advanced nation. The Chinese nurses occupies ten minute one of Japanese nurses. Nursing demand rises more and more for a reform mother and child standard and nursing of an increase on the life habitual diseases. Nursing education system is 3 year education after graduating from a junior high school. Recently, High class nurse is increasing, for the reason is a higher education and post graduate education of a nursing. A abolition of middle class nurse (finished at junior high school) make a plan for the beginning the 2lst century. The nurse supply and demand countermeasure is enforced for a nurse arranging countermeasure. Major countermeasure is a treatment reform of a nurse and as considering that nursing is a special job.
Keywords: 中国 / 看護需要の背景 / 看護婦数 / 看護教育 / 看護婦昇進制度
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/18301
ISSN: 09160841
Type: Departmental Bulletin Paper
Text Version: publisher
Appears in Collections:Volume 12

Citable URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/18301

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