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Pharmacodynamic interactions between MDMA and concomitants in MDMA tablets on extracellular dopamine and serotonin in the rat brain.

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Title: Pharmacodynamic interactions between MDMA and concomitants in MDMA tablets on extracellular dopamine and serotonin in the rat brain.
Authors: Ikeda, Rie / Igari, Yoshiko / Fuchigami, Yuki / Wada, Mitsuhiro / Kuroda, Naotaka / Nakashima, Kenichiro
Issue Date: 25-Jun-2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Citation: European Journal of Pharmacology, 660(2-3), pp.318-325; 2011
Abstract: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a psychoactive stimulant abused by young people as the recreational drug ecstasy. Other compounds, either deliberately added or present as byproducts, are often found in MDMA tablets and can unexpectedly interact with each other. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamic effects of interactions caused by concomitants in MDMA tablets on extracellular dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) by microdialysis in the striatum of ethylcarbamate-anesthetized rats. Baseline levels of dopamine and 5-HT in the striatum were 16.5±7.7 and 3.5±1.7 nM (mean±standard deviation), respectively. After a single administration of MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.), a dramatic increase in extracellular dopamine (Cmax: 36.1-fold vs. baseline) and 5-HT levels (Cmax: 9.3-fold vs. baseline) was observed. When rats were co-administered with methamphetamine (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg) with MDMA, the dopamine levels induced by MDMA increased in a methamphetamine-dose-dependent manner (Cmax: 2.5-, 3.5-, and 3.8-fold vs. MDMA). A similar trend was observed in 5-HT levels (Cmax: 1.1-, 1.3-, and 1.8-fold vs. MDMA). In contrast, ketamine and caffeine showed synergistic effects on the monoamine levels induced by MDMA, whereas the individual administration of either of these compounds did not affect monoamine levels. Ketamine (1, 5 mg/kg) decreased the dopamine levels induced by MDMA (Cmax: 0.9- and 0.7-fold vs. MDMA) and increased the 5-HT levels induced by MDMA (Cmax: 1.4- and 1.6-fold vs. MDMA), and co-administration of caffeine (20 mg/kg) with MDMA increased dopamine levels (Cmax: 1.7-fold vs. MDMA). These results suggest that exposure to multiple drugs in addition to MDMA can have neurotoxic effects.
Keywords: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine / Caffeine / Dopamine / Interaction / Ketamine / Methamphetamine / Serotonin
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/25453
ISSN: 00142999
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.03.050
PubMed ID: 21497593
Rights: Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Type: Journal Article
Text Version: author
Appears in Collections:Articles in academic journal

Citable URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/25453

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