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タイトル: BANKの訳語と国立銀行条例について
その他のタイトル: Japanese Translation of "BANK" and Kokuritsu Ginko Jorei in 5th of Meiji (National Banking Act of 1872 in Japan)
著者: 立脇, 和夫
著者(別表記) : Tatewaki, Kazuo
発行日: 1985年 3月
出版者: 長崎大学経済学部 / Faculty of Economis, Nagasaki University
引用: 経済学部研究年報, 1, pp.1-20; 1985
抄録: When her door was opened to the western world in 1859 , Japan was forced to give new Japanese name to everything comprising the western civilization coming into Japan.A BANK or a modern financial institution was one of the new comers from the western world. At the beginning, there were naturally a variety of translation for a bank, such as Ryogaeya, Kawaseza, Ginpo, Ginko, etc. However, GZNKO became gradually popular in 1870s , since Meiji govermment enacted Kokuritsu Ginko Jorei (National Banking Act) in 1872, in order to introduce the National Banking System in the U. S. Following enactment of this act, number of Kokuritsu Ginko (national banks) increased rapidly, particularly, after 1876. Namely total number of national banks increased from 5 in 1876 to 153 at the end of 1879.Reflecting this trend , GINKO became popular word representing "BANK". Eiichi Shibusawa (1840~1931) mentioned that Ministry of Finance which he belonged to determined naming of Kokuritsu Ginko Jorei when they drafted it at Shiheiryo of the Ministry of Finance. Dr.Kakujiro Yamazaki (1868~1945) and Dr.Chozo Muto (1881~1942) insisted that Shibusawa and other Shiheiryo staff had referred to W.Lobscheid's English and Chinese Dictionary (英華字典) which contained for the first time "GINKO" (銀行) as a Chinese translation for "BANK". This dictionary was published in Hongkong in 1866 and was imported to Japan immediately. The writer succeeded in discovering a copy of Lobscheid's English and Chinese Dictinary marked "Shiheiryo Kanseki " (紙幣寮官籍) , at Naikaku Bunko of National Archives in Tokyo. This is sufficient witness that Shiheiryo staff referred to Lobscheid's Dictionary when Kokuritsu Ginko Jorei was drafted in 1872. Among Japanese documents , the oldest record that GINKO was adopted as a Japanese translation of BANK is Saburo Shioda's (1843~1889) transtation of the letter from Oriental Bank Yokohama Branch to Bakufu's Kanjo Bugyo (Secretary of Treasury) dated Sept. 28, 1866. Masami Kanakura assumed that S.Shioda had referred to Lobscheid's Dictionary , when he had translated the above letter. Fortunately , the writer could discover a copy of Lobscheid's Dictionary which was marked "Contribution from late Saburo Shioda " (故塩田三郎寄贈本) , at the National Diet Library in Tokyo. Based upon these findings , it is clear that GINKO commonly used today is not "made-in-Japan" but "imported from Hongkong". According to research by Dr.Muto , an English book with Chinese translation , entitled "Graduated Reading Comprising a Circle of Knowledge, in 200 Lessons" written by J.Legge has a Chinese translation of GINKO-SENPYO (銀行銭票) for BANK-NOTE. This book was published in Hongkong in 1856 and imported to Japan, subsequently. Dr.Muto also discovered a hallmark of GINKO-KAIKAN (銀行会館) on a large bell made in 1714in Canton, Mainland China. At that time, however , GINKO meant not bank but a guild of merchants. It is generally understood that Kokuritsu Ginko Jorei was enacted to establish a national banking system in Japan. However, description of banking act in the U.S which Kokuritsu Ginko Jorei was based on was often stated incorrectly even in the U.S. Thus Dr. Torajiro Takagaki insisted that Kokuritsu Ginko Jorei was not based on the National Bank Act or the National Banking Act , but was based on the National Currency Act. Then the writer looked into the United States Statutes at Large in 1860s and identified the following. 1) On Feb.25,1863, the National Currency Act of 1863 (Chap.LVIII) was enacted and accordingly the national banking system was established. 2) On June3,1864, the National Currency Act of 1864 (Chap.CVI) was enacted and the National Currency Act of 1863 was repealed. 3) On June20,1874,the National Currency Act of 1864 was renamed "National Bank Act" by the Act of June 20,1874 (Chap.343) As a conclusion , the writer feels that accurate understanding is most important when historical facts are referred to. Otherwise , students may not be free from confusion in any time.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/26110
ISSN: 09108602
資料タイプ: Departmental Bulletin Paper
原稿種類: publisher

引用URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/26110



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