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Distribution of a Knockdown Resistance Mutation (L1014S) in Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis in Western and Southern Kenya.


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Title: Distribution of a Knockdown Resistance Mutation (L1014S) in Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis in Western and Southern Kenya.
Authors: Kawada, Hitoshi / Futami, Kyoko / Komagata, Osamu / Kasai, Shinji / Tomita, Takashi / Sonye, George / Mwatele, Cassian / Njenga, Sammy M / Mwandawiro, Charles / Minakawa, Noboru / Takagi, Masahiro
Issue Date: 9-Sep-2011
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS One, 6(9), e24323; 2011
Abstract: In Kenya, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) distributed to pregnant women and children under 5 years old through various programs have resulted in a significant reduction in malaria deaths. All of the World Health Organization-recommended insecticides for mosquito nets are pyrethroids, and vector mosquito resistance to these insecticides is one of the major obstacles to an effective malaria control program. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are major malaria vectors that are widely distributed in Kenya. Two point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014F and L1014S) are associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroids in An. gambiae s.s. While the same point mutations have been reported to be rare in An. arabiensis, some evidence of metabolic resistance has been reported in this species. In order to determine the distribution of the point mutation L1014S in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in southern and western Kenya, we collected larvae and screened for the mutation by DNA sequencing. We found high allelic and homozygous frequencies of the L1014S mutation in An. gambiae s.s. The L1014S mutation was also widely distributed in An. arabiensis, although the allelic frequency was lower than in An. gambiae s.s. The same intron sequence (length: 57 base) found in both species indicated that the mutation was introgressed by hybridization. The allelic frequency of L1014S was higher in both species in western regions, demonstrating the strong selection pressure imposed by long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLITN)/ITN on the An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis populations in those areas. The present contribution of the L1014S mutation to pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis may be negligible. However, the homozygous frequency could increase with continuing selection pressure due to expanded LLITN coverage in the future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/26151
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024323
PubMed ID: 21931682
Rights: © 2011 Kawada et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Type: Journal Article
Text Version: publisher
Appears in Collections:Articles in academic journal

Citable URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/26151

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