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Adult T cell Leukemia-Lymphoma

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Title: Adult T cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
Authors: Tsukasaki, Kunihiro
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2012
Publisher: W. S. Maney & Son Ltd
Citation: Hematology, 17(SUPPL.1), pp.S32-S35; 2012
Abstract: Adult T-cell leukemialymphoma (ATL) was first described in 1977 as a distinct clinico-pathological entity with a suspected viral etiology. Subsequently, a novel RNA retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was isolated from a cell line established from the leukemic cells of an ATL patient, and the finding of a clear association with ATL led to its inclusion among human carcinogenic pathogens. The three major routes of HTLV-1 transmission are mother-to-child infections via breast milk, sexual intercourse, and blood transfusions. HTLV-1 infection early in life, presumably from breast feeding, is crucial in the development of ATL. The diversity in clinical features and prognosis of patients with this disease has led to its subtype-classification into four categories, acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types defined by organ involvement, and LDH and calcium values. In cases of acute, lymphoma, or unfavorable chronic subtypes (aggressive ATL), intensive chemotherapy such as VCAP-AMP-VECP is usually recommended. In cases of favorable chronic or smoldering ATL (indolent ATL), watchful waiting until disease progression has been recommended although the long term prognosis was inferior to those of, for instance, chronic lymphoid leukemia. Retrospective analysis suggested that the combination of interferon alpha and zidovudine was apparently promising for the treatment of ATL, especially for types with leukemic manifestation. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also promising for the treatment of aggressive ATL possibly reflecting graft vs. ATL effect. Several new agent-trials for ATL are ongoing and in preparation, including a defucosylated humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody. Two steps should be considered for the prevention of HTLV-1-associated ATL. The first is the prevention of HTLV-1 infections and the second is the prevention of ATL among HTLV-1 carriers. So far, no agent has been found to be effective for the latter. Further investigation on the pathogenesis of ATL is crucial for the prevention and treatment of this refractory leukemialymphoma.
Keywords: ATL / HTLV-1 / Molecular pathophysiology / Prevention and treatment
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/28943
ISSN: 10245332
DOI: 10.1179/102453312X13336169155330
Rights: © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012.
Type: Journal Article
Text Version: author
Appears in Collections:Articles in academic journal

Citable URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/28943

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