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Spatial trends of nitrate pollution and groundwater chemistry in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan

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Title: Spatial trends of nitrate pollution and groundwater chemistry in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan
Authors: Nakagawa, Kei / Amano, Hiroki / Asakura, Hiroshi / Berndtsson, Ronny
Issue Date: Feb-2016
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
Citation: Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(3), art. no.234; 2016
Abstract: Groundwater contamination by nitrate is a common problem in many parts of the world. The agriculturally important Shimabara district in Nagasaki, Japan, is experiencing this problem. The general source of drinking water of the study area is groundwater and consequently the nitrate contamination is a significant problem. For this reason, a groundwater investigation was performed and water samples were collected at 40 locations including residential areas, public water supply wells, springs, and rivers from August 2011 to November 2013. Results showed that nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration is exceeding the Japanese drinking water quality standards (10 mg L−1) at 15 locations. Maximum NO3-N concentration was 26.6 mg L−1. Nitrate (NO−3) was strongly correlated with Cl− (r = 0.96), K+ (r = 0.68), SO2−4 (r = 0.66), and Ca2+ (r = 0.59), respectively. The high correlations with Cl− and K+ are related to livestock waste. Corresponding correlation with SO2−4 is related to chemical fertilizers and Ca2+ to calcareous material to neutralize acidic soil. Both the first and second components in principal component analysis reflect ion dissolution from aquifer matrix during groundwater flow along the mountain side towards the lower reaches of the alluvial fan. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, chemical characteristics of groundwater were classified into four clusters. One cluster is strongly related to the nitrate contaminated groundwater and the other clusters reflect the origin of the major ions in the groundwater.
Keywords: Groundwater / Water chemistry / Nitrate pollution / Principal component analysis / Hierarchical cluster analysis
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/37000
ISSN: 18666280
DOI: 10.1007/s12665-015-4971-9
Rights: © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 / The final publication is available at link.springer.com
Type: Journal Article
Text Version: author
Appears in Collections:Articles in academic journal

Citable URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/37000

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