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Functions of post-conflict bystander affiliations toward aggressors and victims in bottlenose dolphins

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Title: Functions of post-conflict bystander affiliations toward aggressors and victims in bottlenose dolphins
Authors: Yamamoto, Chisato / Ishibashi, Toshiaki / Kashiwagi, Nobuyuki / Amano, Masao
Issue Date: 2-Mar-2020
Publisher: Springer Narure
Citation: Scientific reports, 10(1), art.no.3776; 2020
Abstract: Post-conflict affiliations initiated by bystanders (bystander affiliation) toward aggressors or victims have been suggested to represent the function of conflict management in some social living species. However, the function of bystander affiliations toward aggressors and victims has not been examined in marine mammals. In the present study, we investigated the function of bystander affiliations to aggressors and victims in bottlenose dolphins: self-protection, the substitute of reconciliation, social facilitation and tension relief of opponents. These bystander affiliations did not reduce post-conflict attacks by former opponents against group members. Bystander affiliation to aggressors tended to be performed by a bystander who had an affiliative relationship with the aggressor but not with the victim. Bystander affiliation to victims also tended to be initiated by a bystander who had an affiliative relationship with the victim but not the aggressor and was close to former opponents at the end of aggressions. Affiliation among group members who stayed near former opponents during aggressions did not increase after aggressions compared to that under control conditions. Renewed aggressions between former opponents decreased after bystander affiliations in our previous study. Bystanders who showed social closeness to former opponents may initiate bystander affiliation toward their affiliative former opponents because they may feel emotion, such as anxiety and excitement, of former opponents. Bystander affiliation toward aggressors and victims may function as tension relief between former opponents. Bystanders of bottlenose dolphins, who may have a relaxed dominant style, might initiate post-conflict affiliation to affiliative individuals unaffected by the dominance relationships among them, unlike despotic species
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/39724
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60423-6
Rights: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Type: Journal Article
Text Version: publisher
Appears in Collections:Articles in academic journal

Citable URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10069/39724

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